Introduction: Gossypiboma is a term that describes a mass formed from a cotton wad surrounded by local inflammatory reaction. The foreign body left in the abdominal cavity can serve as a culture medium for the proliferation of microorganisms and act as the primary focus for formation of abscesses, fistulas, intestinal perforations, peritonitis and sepsis. This abstract has the objective of reporting a typical case of abdominal Gossypiboma discovered 5 years after the patient underwent an emergency cesarean section due to fetal distress.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A 28-year-old woman, who had two previous cesarean deliveries and was previously healthy, was admitted to the Ary Pinheiro Hospital (PVH-RO-Brazil) with intense abdominal pain, palpable abdominal mass and slow growth, presenting Intestinal constipation and Nausea. A computed tomography scan of the upper abdomen revealed a complex and expansive cystic lesion, well delimited, with a low signal capsule, containing serpiginous linear images with an intermediate signal in the interior, suggestive of a foreign body. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, with rupture of the cystic capsular structure containing in its interior the surgical compression, retained, unnoticed, for 5 years in the abdominal cavity. The histopathological study confirmed the presence of a foreign body (cotton material) adhered inside the wall of the cystic capsule, confirming Gossypiboma.Conclusion: this case emphasizes the importance of the early recognition of this condition in order to avoid early or late postoperative complications and reduce morbidity. In addition, it emphasizes the need for intensive surveillance and surgical material counting, which should be taken as a preventive measure during the operative event, resulting in case reduction, in addition to preventing medicolegal complications.