Context. Postpartum depression ( PPD) seems to be the most common complication of postpartum period, having long lasting, devastating effects not only for the mother, but for the baby as well. Objective. The onset of the disease depends both from neurobiological and from sociological factors. The aim of this work was to examine, if - and how- 10 years in quickly changing Poland might affect mental health of young mothers. Methods To estimate the prevalence of depression , Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used, with cut-off score => 12. To describe the characteristics of the population and risk factors of PPD, self-reported questionnaire, was used,regarding; 1. medical, 2. obstetrical history, and 3. social status. The results were statistically analysed. Patients Women, staying home 3 weeks after delivery, were asked by theirs midwifes to participate in the study. The studies were conducted in Lubkuski district, in west part of Poland. Intervention In 2005 first study, enrolling 1240 women, was finished. Ten years later, in 2015, the same method was used to examine 524 women. Main outcome measures The prevalence of PPD in 2005 was 9,3% in Poland. The risk factors were; living alone, having no job, history of depression episode in life or in family, premenstrual tension syndrome or dysphoric syndrome. There was a strong coincidence with higher risk of PPD in autumn/winter months, with lack of sunlight. Ten years later, in 2015, the prevalence of PPD was 19,2%. All former risk factors are still actual, but these are some new -as lower educational level, poor financial situation, or baby's health. Ten years later, women report twice more episodes of depression in the past ( 7,3%) and doubled number of mentally affected members of the family ( 13,3%). Results In spite of all positive changes in Poland during last ten years, the number of women with PPD almost doubled. The new risk factors emphasize the role of economical awareness. Conclusion Promotion of higher education among women and encouraging women to have a job- should be regarded not only as beneficial for financial reasons, but for their mental well-being as well. As the risk of PPD in polish population grows, the screening tools should be widely used among young mothers and system of professional help should be established.